Tuesday, May 26, 2020
The Indisputable Truth About Essay Samples of Compare and Contrast That No One Is Telling You The One Thing to Do for Essay Samples of Compare and Contrast The essay needs to have a point. You are going to want to develop a thesis after brainstorming as a way to determine what the crux of your paper will be. Writing an essay isn't only collecting the different details. It's possible to use any as the subject of your essay especially whenever you're not assigned any specific theme. The thesis statement stipulates the principal point of or ideas in your essay. When it can be less difficult to write on a well-known topic, with a little research and organization, a writer can make an essay on a number of subject areas if assigned. When it has to do with writing an essay, you must deal with an appropriate structure. Writing an excellent essay might be a bit of cake if you're feeling inspired. You may use the suggested topics as inspiration for your own, or you could simply opt to write about one you enjoy the most. Following that, you can't locate a best topic. The topics you'll find here require a distinctive approach as you attempt to develop useful and accurate content. In the event the topic you're working with is exciting for you, we're sure it is completely simple to work with this. It is possible to also order a fully written compare and contrast essay and alleviate the quantity of work you need to do. If you choose to ask a question, don't neglect to hint at the answer within the next portion of your paper. You also know how to discover sources and the ideal kind to utilize in your paper to allow it to be relevant and interesting. The thesis of your compare and contrast essay is crucial as it assists you to make a focused argument and provide your readers a road map so they don't get lost in the ocean of points that you are just about to make. The names of the things are listed throughout the top. To begin with, you must discover a basis of comparison to be sure the 2 things have enough in common. A point-by-point list can help you maintain balance. Make a list of all things you'll be able to write and then select a couple that you believe are the absolute most important. Understanding Essay Samples of Compare and Contrast It's common to be assigned to compose essays in every area of study, not just when taking a composition program. Needless to say, writing is among the top learning programs in any significant scho ol institution. The topic for a compare and contrast essay will probably be set by the topic or course a student is enrolled. Students who excel in writing about such complex topic might have an opportunity to be enrolled into a number of the very best Art universities to come up with their abilities and talent. After the essay requires a large number of approaches to explore, it's important to understand how to organize it correctly in an effort to guarantee easy reading. It's possible for you to attract books, movies or articles which are discussing exactly the same topic you're likely to approach in your essay. Also, consider what you would like your reader to learn. Enough practice in reading and writing will supply you with an additional advantage. Getting the Best Essay Samples of Compare and Contrast Focus is also associated with coherence. So now you understand how to pick the best compare and contrast topics and the various segments you have to address when writin g. The introduction needs to be utilised to make a general outline of the comparison research paper. It has three key elements. The Most Popular Essay Samples of Compare and Contrast A strong essay is going to have an opening paragraph that comes with a thesis statement and a concluding paragraph. You would like to synthesize your thesis with the info in your body paragraphs. It is possible to restate your thesis statement and point out a number of the arguments used over the full essay that backs it up. Now the thesis statement can be produced, and the particular details can grow to be the paragraphs. Keep in mind, though you might not be crafting the upcoming great novel, you are trying to leave an enduring impression on the folks evaluating your essay. Just utilize whatever you can remember from the subject you're working with. Or you're risking of getting blocked by bad understanding of your topic and inability to come up with the idea as it needs to be. To begin wit h, you need to remember that picking a subject is no simple work. It is possible to even begin to sketch a few similarities and differences between this issue you brainstormed so you have a notion on how complicated it is going to be to compose the essay. Simply create two overlapping circles, one for each one of the topics that you're comparing. Some essays might just speak about similarities, though others may just speak about differences. A superior compare-and-contrast essay goes beyond a very simple listing of similarities and differences to earn a meaningful statement about a bigger topic.
Friday, May 15, 2020
A cognitive bias is a systematic error in thinking that impacts ones choices and judgments. The concept of cognitive bias was first proposed by Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman in a 1974 article in Science. Since then, researchers have identified and studied numerous types of cognitive biases. These biases influence our perception of the world and can lead us to poor decision-making. Key Takeaways: Cognitive Bias Cognitive biases increase our mental efficiency by enabling us to make quick decisions without any conscious deliberation.However, cognitive biases can also distort our thinking, leading to poor decision-making and false judgments.Three common cognitive biases are fundamental attribution error, hindsight bias, and confirmation bias. Causes of Cognitive Bias As humans, we generally believe ourselves to be rational and aware. However, our minds often respond to the world automatically and without our awareness. When the situation demands it, we are able to put mental effort into making decisions, but much of our thinking takes place outside of conscious control. In his book Thinking Fast and Slow, Nobel Prize winning psychologist Daniel Kahneman refers to these two types of thinking as System 1 and System 2. System 1 is fast and intuitive, relying on mental shortcuts in thinkingÃ¢â¬âcalled heuristicsÃ¢â¬âto navigate the world more efficiently. By contrast, System 2 is slow, introducing deliberation and logic into our thinking. Both systems impact how we make judgments, but System 1 is in charge a majority of the time. We unconsciously prefer System 1 because it is applied effortlessly. System 1 includes preferences we are born with, like our desire to avoid losses and run from snakes, and associations we learn, like the answers to simple math equations (quick: whatÃ¢â¬â¢s 22?) and the ability to read. Meanwhile, System 2 requires attention in order to work, and attention is a limited resource. Thus, the deliberate, slow thinking of System 2 is only deployed when were paying attention to a specific problem. If our attention is drawn to something else, System 2 is disrupted.Ã Are Cognitive Biases Rational or Irrational? It may seem irrational that we rely so heavily on System 1 in our thinking, but as it turns out, the preference has a logical explanation. If we had to carefully examine our options every time we made a decision, we would quickly become overwhelmed. Need an example? Imagine the mental overload of deliberately weighing the pros and cons of each potential route to work every single day. Using mental shortcuts to make these decisions enables us to act quickly. Sacrificing logic for speed helps us cut through the complexities and the wealth of information inundating us on a daily basis, making life more efficient. For example, lets say youre walking home alone at night and suddenly hear a strange sound behind you. A cognitive bias may cause you to believe the noise is a sign of danger. As a result, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll quicken your pace so that you can get home as soon as possible. Of course, the noise may not have come from someone who means to harm you. It may have been a stray cat rummaging in a nearby trash can. However, by using a mental shortcut to quickly come to a conclusion, you may have stayed out of danger. In this way, our reliance on cognitive biases to navigate through life can be adaptive. On the other hand, our cognitive biases can get us into trouble. They sometimes result in distortedÃ thinking that negatively impacts the choices and judgments we make. Cognitive biases also lead to stereotyping, which can become ingrained from our exposure to our cultureÃ¢â¬â¢s biases and prejudices towards different races, religions, socioeconomic statuses, and other groups. Personal motivations, social influence, emotions, and differences in our information processing capacities can all cause cognitive biases and influence how they manifest themselves. Examples of Cognitive Biases Cognitive biases impact us in many areas of life, including social situations, memory recall, what we believe, and our behavior. They have been used in disciplines like economics and marketing to explain why people do what they do as well as to predict and influence peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior. Take the following three cognitive biases as examples. Fundamental Attribution Error The fundamental attribution error, also known as the correspondence bias, is the general tendency to attribute another individualÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior to their personality and internal traits rather than the situation or external factors. It is considered a bias of social judgment. For example, a series of studies showed that people attribute the actions of a TV character to the personality traits of the actor playing the character. This happened despite the fact that the participants were aware that the behavior of the actors was dictated by a script. Numerous studies have demonstrated this tendency to believe that whatever behavior an individual exhibits arises from their individual characteristics, even when knowledge of the situation should indicate otherwise. Hindsight Bias Hindsight bias, or the Ã¢â¬Å"I-knew-it-all-alongÃ¢â¬ effect, leads us to believe that we could have correctly predicted the outcome of past events after weve learned what the outcome was. It is a bias of memory in which people incorrectly believe they knew the outcome of an event all along even though they didnt. They believe they remember correctly predicting the outcome, so they also believe that their memories are consistent over time. This bias makes it difficult to properly evaluate a decision, as people will focus on the outcome and not the logic of the decision-making process itself. For example, if an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s favorite team wins a big game, they may claim they knew the team would win, even if they were uncertain before the game. Confirmation Bias Confirmation bias is a bias of belief in which people tend to seek out, interpret, and recall information in a way that confirms their preconceived notions and ideas. In other words, people attempt to preserve their existing beliefs by paying attention to information that confirms those beliefs and discounting information that could challenge them. Confirmation bias can be seen in action in many facets of life, including what political policies one champions and whether one believes in a specific scientific explanation for phenomena like climate change or vaccines. Confirmation bias is one reason itÃ¢â¬â¢s so challenging to have a logical discussion about polarizing hot-button issues. Sources Aronson, Elliot. The Social Animal. 10th ed., Worth Publishers, 2008.Cherry, Kendra. Ã¢â¬Å"Confirmation Bias.Ã¢â¬ VeryWell Mind, 15 October 2018. https://www.verywellmind.com/what-is-a-confirmation-bias-2795024Cherry, Kendra. Ã¢â¬Å"How Cognitive Biases Influence How You Think and Act.Ã¢â¬ VeryWell Mind, 8 October 2018.https://www.verywellmind.com/what-is-a-cognitive-bias-2794963Kahneman, Daniel. Thinking Fast and Slow. Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2011.Tal-Or, Nurit, and Yael Papirman. Ã¢â¬Å"The Fundamental Attribution Error in Attributing Fictional FiguresÃ¢â¬â¢ Characteristics to the Actors.Ã¢â¬ Media Psychology, vol. 9, no. 2, 2007, p. 331-345. https://doi.org/10.1080/15213260701286049Tversky, Almos, and Daniel Kahneman, Ã¢â¬Å"Judgment Under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases.Ã¢â¬ Science, vol. 185, no. 4157, 1974, pp. 1124-1131. doi: 10.1126/science.185.4157.1124
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Imagine an Earth devoid of clean rivers with no inland marine life or readily available freshwater. This situation may arise if humanity does not volunteer to end its polluting tendencies. Initially, each individual should focus on taking steps towards decontaminating his or her nearest water body. For those living in Delaware, this is the Delaware River, which is in need of drastic reform. Ã¢â¬Å"The Delaware River . . . is the fifth most-polluted river in the country, according to a report released . . . by Environment New JerseyÃ¢â¬ (Augenstein). However, this obstacle did not arise spontaneously. A recognized problem by the early eighteenth century, Delaware River pollution remained a serious issue for the next 300 years and mostly stemmed from rapid population growth and booming industrial activities (Ã¢â¬Å"Delaware River Water QualityÃ¢â¬ ). As the years progressed, Delawareans continuously disregarded the Delaware River, and it is now immensely besmirched as a result o f accumulating neglect for the river. Because of this, Delaware waters continued to befoul past the threshold of safety. Delaware waterways are currently unsafe for commercial use due to the presence of pollutants and parasites like Giardia and Cryptosporidium in the river that can cause significant health problems, especially in individuals with weakened immune systems (Ã¢â¬Å"DelawareÃ¢â¬ ). The polluted Delaware River, sullied by companies despite the Clean Water Act, may cause a decline in DelawareÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬â¢ marine life, humanShow MoreRelatedThe State Of Delaware River Pollution1243 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesdecontaminating his or her nearest water body. For those living in Delaware, the nearest major water body is the Delaware River, which is in dire need of reform. Ã¢â¬Å"The Delaware River, . . . is the fifth most-polluted river in the country, according to a report released . . . by Environment New JerseyÃ¢â¬ (Augenstein). However, this issue did not arise spontaneo usly. A recognized problem by the early eighteenth century, Delaware River pollution remained a serious issue for the next 300 years. This mostly originatedRead MoreThe Delaware River Basin And The State Of New York1604 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Delaware River flows from the Delaware River Basin in the state of New York, creating a natural boundary between Pennsylvania, Delaware and New Jersey. The lower boundary of the river is urbanized and the upper boundary is rural with very little industry. If the Delaware River Basin were to be disturbed, many people would be affected. The Delaware River Basin is a major source of drinking water for many in the metro New York City area and houses many species that play an important role in theRead MoreAnimal Animals : Animal Waste1214 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesmodern society, animals, such as chickens and cows, are genetically created for human consumption in concentrated animal feeding operations, otherwise known as CAFOs (Burkholder 2007). Anim al feeding operations significantly contribute to water pollution because of the millions of pounds of manure produced. Controlled animal feeding operations hold hundreds of animals that must relieve themselves multiple times a day, causing an excessive buildup of manure. 238,000 working farms and ranches in theRead MoreEcology of Maryland1280 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagespresent day. Eventually, Marylands rock layer turned into fertile soils, mineral deposits, and composite water elements. The political boundaries of the State of Maryland enclose an ecologically assorted land. Its river systems nosh the Chesapeake Bay, the Delaware River, and the Ohio River. Throughout the state, altitudes ascend from the coast to more than 3,000 feet at Backbone Mountain in Garrett County (Krech, 1999). Granite bedrock projects from the plane of western Maryland, at the same time asRead MoreLouisiana Is A Place Of Beautiful Wildlife And Landscape1293 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesdisappearing is that they are just being converted into open water. While other wetlands in other states are being used for many things. The destruction of these wetlands in the coast of Louisiana can be prevented by funding restoration acts and stopping pollution. If this rate of LouisianaÃ¢â¬â¢s wetlands being lost, the state will lose another fifteen percent by the year 2050. With these numbers being said, Mark stated Ã¢â¬Å"LouisianaÃ¢â¬â¢s coastline has been losing wetlands at a rate of 16.57 square miles a year duringRead MoreGlobal Climate Change Proposal1451 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesin our atmosphere. The greenhouse effect causes an increase in the EarthÃ¢â¬â¢s temperature from atmospheric gases, including carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide, disrupts the cycle of energy by trapping the outgoing energy from the Earth, which is supposed to be on its way back to space (Shah, 2012). Instead, the energy is retained on Earth; causing natural temperature to increase as well as polluting the air. Human activity has contributed to this natural effect through the excessive burning ofRead MoreThe New York City Water System2654 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pagesunderground or at ground level that can include water treatment and associated equipment (pumps and piping systems). There are three major watershed systems in which New York receives its water which are The Croton System, The Catskill System, The Delaware System. The reservoir systems pump approximately 1.1 billion gallons of fresh and clean water through New York State. Through aqueducts ninety-seven percent of the water comes to New York City through gravity and another three percent is pumped.Read MorePollution, Overfishing, And The Sea Of An Urban Environment1953 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesPhiladelphia is a city not far yet not terribly close to the coast, a city rooted in public art relating to the history of the area. Although bordered by both the Delaware and Schuylkill rivers, it is often forgotten that the everyday actions of citizens of the city impact the environment both near and as far away as the Atlantic coast. Awareness must be brought to the issue that we, the human race, are slowly but surely degrading our planet to the point that it will force major lifestyle changesRead MoreSilent Spring By Rachel Carson1083 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesEnvironmentalism is the belief in which one advocates for environmental preservation. In Rachel CarsonÃ¢â¬â¢s narrative Silent Spring, she gives her activist insight on the use of toxic chemicals for the benefit of humanity by exposing the detrimental effects these toxins bring. In comparison to Carson, I perceive myself to have developed my perception of nature through books however, my culture did not allow me to have a one on one interaction with nature. Carson fails to comprehend how traditional valuesRead MoreThe Effects Of Climate Change On The North Atlantic Region Essay1368 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesbecome more problematic for coastal societies in recent history as a result of elevated greenhouse gas emission levels across the planet. Increases in sea level and sea surface temperature, as well as atmospheric pressure accretion, are unnatural effects directly linked to increased carbon dioxide (C O2) release into the atmosphere. Some of the sources of these increases have come from the greater use of coal and gasoline for industrial and transportation purposes. Hurricanes (tropical cyclones), most
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Financial Management of Corporate Governance. Answer: 718 Geelong Street, Melbourne, VIC 3000 15 January 2018 Christopher Sampson Managing Director, Beachlife Ltd Level 7, 927 William Street, Brisbane QLD-4000 Dear Christopher Sampson Relevant email was transmitted on 13 November 2017, which indicated the problems faced by Beachlife Limited in forming their annual report. The email sent to Magenta and Associates mainly addressed the accounting issues faced by the management of Beachlife Limited. Nevertheless, in response to the email the following letter is being outlined, which directs all the relevant problems and accounting issues faced by the organization. The measures and standards needed for comprehending the accounting issues adequately discussed in the letter, which could allow the board to correctly prepare its financial report. On behalf of Magenta and Associates I wholeheartedly thank you for providing us with an opportunity to help with your accounting issues. Rest assured the measures and adjustment that is needed for nullifying the accounting issue are adequately depicted in the letter. Furthermore, adequate references and sources are provided with the advice that is given for contemplating the accou nting issue. Beachlife Limited is a public limited company, who needs to follow all the relevant AASB standard and regulations laid in Corporation Act 2001. The clauses and sections need to be maintained by the organization while preparing the annual report, as it might help in depicting their actual financial position. Regulations such as section 292, section 296, and section 334 are mainly used in drafting the annual report (Aasb.gov.au 2018). Organizations use the detected regulations to formulate their annual report according to the standard maintained by the AASB and IAS. Lastly, it could be said that the advice provided in Beachlife Limited is compliant with AASB standard, which could allow the organization to complete their annual report. The measures are provided for issues regarding the warranty expense and future loss that will be incurred by the organization. Identifying the overall measures needed to solve the accounting issue regarding infringement claim: The first accounting issue addressed in the email was regarding problems relating to patent case, where the company needs to pay compensation to the accuser. However, the problems in recording of loss that will be incurred by the company due to the infringement patent act is adequately solved. Beachlife Limited could use contingency liability in their annual report to record the overall loss, which will incur in immediate future. The measure taken with contingency liability section is mainly addressed in AASB 137 paragraph 10 (Aasb.gov.au 2018). The treatment of contingency liability mentioned under paragraph 10 addressed that any kind of loss, which will incur in future due to past actions needs to be recorded in contingency liability section. This section directly addresses the accounting issue of recording any kind of future losses incurred by the organization in future. The contingency liability section mainly comes under balance sheet section of the organization under the liabil ity section. Therefore, the board could use the contingency liability section mentioned in AASB 137 for addressing the accounting issue faced by Beachlife limited (Adhariani, Sciulli and Clift 2017). Particulars Value Probability 1st chance $ 50,000,000 60% 2nd chance $ 30,000,000 40% 3rd chance $ 87,000,000 30% The above table mainly identifies the overall probability and chance of loss occurrence from the court ruling against Beachlife limited. There are 3 probabilities with different percentage, where the company could incur loss. The highest probability is 60%, where the company will incur loss of $ 50,000,000, which needs to be listed in the contingency liability section. The other probability is also an option, where the company could incur different amounts of loss. However, the highest chance of probability occurrence needs to be taken into consideration, as there is highest likelihood the loss, which might incur by the organisation (Ball, Tyler and Wells 2015). In addition, the contingency liability section of Beachlife limited should include $ 50,000,000 for the probable loss, which might incur from infringement patent case. Consequently, the board of Beachlife limited could utilise the information related to AASB 137 paragraph 10 for addressing their accounting issue. This could eventually help in formulating the correct annual report, which represents actual financial position of the organisation. For any further queries on contingency liability section and related standard please feel free to contact Magenta and Associates. Therefore, the board could utilise contingency liability section of AASB and increase their liability section in balance sheet by $ 50,000,000. Identifying the measures used in solving the issue regarding warranty and sale record: The second issue that is faced by the organization is problems related to warranty expenses and record of sales in the current fiscal year. The main issue is regarding listing of warranty expense in the annual report, which is needed to be provided by the company in the current fiscal year and extends to next fiscal year. Relevant provision needs to be conducted by the company to depict their actual financial position in the annual report. According to AASB 137, the expenses that will be conducted in future by the actions taken in past needs to be enlisted under contingency liability section. Moreover, under AASB 137 Paragraph 14(a), the overall expenses that needs to be conducted by the company in near future must be enlisted under contingency liability section of the balance sheet (Aasb.gov.au 2018). Furthermore, the board could utilize the measure conducted by AASB for enlisting he warranty expense that needs to be incurred by the company (Hudson 2016). The problems related to rec oding of sales in annual report also needs to be addressed, where AASB 118 paragraph 9 could be utilized. According to AASB 118 paragraph 9, companies need to recognize their sales conducted during the fiscal year in the annual report (Aasb. Gov. au 2018). The happening of sales conducted in December 2017 needs to be immortalized in the current financial year, which could assist in drafting actual financial position of Beachlife limited. The relevant revenue recognition method is mainly enlisted in AASB 118 paragraph 9, which directly help in stating the actual financial position of the organization. In addition, AASB 118 also states that credit sales are entered during the occurrence regardless of the actual payment conducted by the customer (Jones 2017). Hence, the board of Beachlife limited could enlist the sales figure of $180,000 in the revenue section under the provision of AASB 118 paragraph 9. On the other hand, the contingency liability section of the company under the provision of AASB 137 paragraph 14 (a) could allow the expenses of $15,000 as warranty expense in their yearly report. These above depicted measures for the accounting issue could eventually allow Beachlife limited to accurately develop the yearly report and portray their real financial situation. All the relevant information is divulged in the missive, which could permit the board of Beachlife limited to solve the accounting issue faced in preparing their yearly report. The standards presented by Magenta and Associates adequately comply with all the AASB standard and is accepted by accounting board. The board could utilise the information for nullifying the accounting issues and present accurate financial position in their annual report. Hence, all the accounting issues listed the email sent on 13 November 2017 is adequately addressed. I also guarantee you that any kind of further details needed by the board of Beachlife limited can be provided by Magenta and Associates. We are looking forward for future communication between our administration. Regards Lisa Magenta Manager Magenta and Associates 718 Geelong Street, Melbourne, VIC 3000 Reference: AASB, C.A.S., 2014. Business Combinations.Disclosure,66, p.77. Aasb.gov.au. (2018). [online] Available at: https://www.aasb.gov.au/admin/file/content105/c9/AASB137_07-04_COMPoct10_01-11.pdf [Accessed 16 Jan. 2018]. Aasb.gov.au. (2018). [online] Available at: https://www.aasb.gov.au/admin/file/content105/c9/AASB118_07-04_COMPoct10_01-11.pdf [Accessed 16 Jan. 2018]. Adhariani, D., Sciulli, N. and Clift, R., 2017. Quantitative Optimisation Model, Results and Discussion. InFinancial Management and Corporate Governance from the Feminist Ethics of Care Perspective(pp. 209-284). Springer International Publishing. Ball, F., Tyler, J. and Wells, P., 2015. Is audit quality impacted by auditor relationships?.Journal of Contemporary Accounting Economics,11(2), pp.166-181. Hoyle, J.B., Schaefer, T. and Doupnik, T., 2015.Advanced accounting. McGraw Hill. Hudson, M., 2016. No setting off unfair preferences.Australian Restructuring Insolvency Turnaround Association Journal,28(3), p.34. Jones, D., 2017. Tax and accounting income-Worlds apart?.Taxation in Australia,52(1), p.14. Loyeung, A. and Matolcsy, Z., 2015. CFO's accounting talent, compensation and turnover.Accounting Finance,55(4), pp.1105-1134. Richardson, G., Richardson, G., Taylor, G., Taylor, G., Lanis, R. and Lanis, R., 2016. Women on the board of directors and corporate tax aggressiveness in Australia: An empirical analysis.Accounting Research Journal,29(3), pp.313-331.
Tuesday, April 14, 2020
5 Steps for Balancing Chemical Equations Being able to balance chemical equations is a vital skill for chemistry. Heres a look at the steps involved in balancing equations, plus a worked example of how to balance an equation. Steps of Balancing a Chemical Equation Identify each element found in the equation. The number of atoms of each type of atom must be the same on each side of the equation once it has been balanced.What is the net charge on each side of the equation? The net charge must be the same on each side of the equation once it has been balanced.If possible, start with an element found in one compound on each side of the equation. Change the coefficients (the numbers in front of the compound or molecule) so that the number of atoms of the element is the same on each side of the equation. Remember, to balance an equation, you change the coefficients, not the subscripts in the formulas.Once you have balanced one element, do the same thing with another element. Proceed until all elements have been balanced. Its easiest to leave elements found in pure form for last.Check your work to make certain the charge on both sides of the equation is also balanced. Example of Balancing a Chemical Equation ? CH4 ? O2 Ã¢â â ? CO2 ? H2O Identify the elements in the equation: C, H, OIdentify the net charge: no net charge, which makes this one easy! H is found in CH4 and H2O, so its a good starting element.You have 4 H in CH4 yet only 2 H in H2O, so you need to double the coefficient of H2O to balance H.1 CH4 ? O2 Ã¢â â ? CO2 2 H2OLooking at carbon, you can see that CH4 and CO2 must have the same coefficient.1 CH4 ? O2 Ã¢â â 1 CO2 2 H2OFinally, determine the O coefficient. You can see you need to double the O2 coefficient in order to get 4 O seen on the product side of the reaction.1 CH4 2 O2 Ã¢â â 1 CO2 2 H2OCheck your work. Its standard to drop a coefficient of 1, so the final balanced equation would be written:CH4 2 O2 Ã¢â â CO2 2 H2O Take a quiz to see if you understand how to balance simple chemical equations. How to Balance a Chemical Equation for a Redox Reaction Once you understand how to balance an equation in terms of mass, youre ready to learn how to balance an equation for both mass and charge. Reduction/oxidation or redox reactions and acid-base reactions often involve charged species. Balancing for charge means you have the same net charge on both the reactant and product side of the equation. This isnt always zero! Heres an example of how to balance the reaction between potassium permanganate and iodide ion in aqueous sulfuric acid to form potassium iodide and manganese(II) sulfate. This is a typical acid reaction. First, write the unbalanced chemical equation:KMnO4Ã Ã KIÃ Ã H2SO4Ã Ã¢â âÃ I2Ã Ã MnSO4Write down the oxidation numbers for each type of atom on both sides of the equation:Left hand side: K 1; Mn 7; O -2; I 0; H 1; S 6Right hand side: I 0; Mn 2, S 6; O -2Find the atoms that experience a change in oxidation number:Mn: 7 Ã¢â â 2; I: 1 Ã¢â â 0Write a skeleton ionic equation that only covers the atoms that change oxidation number:MnO4- Ã¢â â Mn2I- Ã¢â â I2Balance all of the atoms besides the oxygen (O) and hydrogen (H) in the half-reactions:MnO4- Ã¢â â Mn22I- Ã¢â â I2Now add O and H2O as needed to balance oxygen:MnO4- Ã¢â â Mn2 4H2O2I- Ã¢â â I2Balance the hydrogen by adding H as needed:MnO4- 8H Ã¢â â Mn2 4H2O2I- Ã¢â â I2Now, balance charge by adding electrons as needed. In this example, the first half-reaction has a charge of 7 on the left and 2 on the right. Add 5 electrons to the left to balance the charge. The second half-re action has 2- on the left and 0 on the right. Add 2 electrons to the right.MnO4- 8H 5e- Ã¢â â Mn2 4H2O2I- Ã¢â â I2 2e- Multiply the two half-reactions by the number that yields the lowest common number of electrons in each half-reaction. For this example, the lowest multiple of 2 and 5 is 10, so multiply the first equation by 2 and the second equation by 5:2 x [MnO4- 8H 5e- Ã¢â â Mn2 4H2O]5 x [2I- Ã¢â â I2 2e-]Add together the two half-reactions and cancel out species that appear on each side of the equation:2MnO4- 10I- 16H Ã¢â â 2Mn2 5I2 8H2O Now, its a good idea to check your work by making sure the atoms and charge are balanced: Left hand side:Ã 2 Mn; 8 O; 10 I; 16 HRight hand side:Ã 2 Mn; 10 I; 16 H; 8 O Left hand side:Ã Ã¢Ëâ2Ã Ã¢â¬âÃ 10Ã 16Ã Ã 4Right hand side:Ã 4
Wednesday, March 11, 2020
Prostate Cancer essays The prostate is a gland that is located just underneath the bladder. It surrounds the urethra through which a man urinates. The prostate gland is therefore vital to proper bladder control and urine flow-rate. The prostate is also essential for normal sexual function. It is the gland of ejaculation, supplying 95% of the seminal fluid and the power to push it through the urethra and out of the penis. The normal prostate in an adult man is about the size of a walnut. Its size often increases over time, however, particularly once a man gets beyond age 40. Because the urethra runs right through the middle of it, a growth spurt of the prostate will squeeze the urethra and begin to choke off the urinary flow. This can effect the ability to urinate and perform sexually. Prostate cancer occurs when some of the cells that make up the prostate gland escape from the normal controls on their growth and start to divide, grow and spread in an uncontolled manner. At first the growth of the cancer occurs very slowly and is usually limited within the prostate gland. Later on in the course of the illness, the prostate gland cells can spread around the body, particulary to the bones where they can paues pain and disability. Estimates show that the cancer may have been growing in some men for up to 10 yearsbefore it causes symptoms and is diagnosed. Some men develop symptoms whereas others do not. In those who that do, the following symptoms are commonly found: Need to urinate frequently, especially at night Sudden, incontrolable urges to urinate A burning sensation or pain when urinating Continuing pain in lower back, pelvis, or upper thighs There appears to be several forms of prostate cancer. Some men ...
Monday, February 24, 2020
Molecular Aspects of Conservation Genetics - Essay Example Scientific genetic approaches have made it easier to identify the cryptic species in particular taxa, and thereby have conservational significance. To achieve a positive result on conservation efforts, especially those linked to an individual species, an in-depth study of the taxonomy is mandatory (Mace 2004). However, since extracting taxonomical evidence based on morphological characteristics of birds has been a Ã¢â¬Å"taxonomic-headacheÃ¢â¬ (Howell and Webb. 1995), a designed systematic molecular approach is a much better alternative. Neotropical parrots belonging to the genus Amazona have been treasured for their capability to mimic human sounds and their beautiful plumage. However, most Amazona species parrots are under threat of extinction except Amazona farinosa, also known as the Mealy Amazon which is prevalent in parts of both Central and South America. Wenner et al conducted a study to evaluate and validate the taxonomy of A.farinosa species complex by employing analytical methods such as complementary analysis and multiple genetic loci. DNA sequence data from mitochondrial and nuclear introns were extracted from sources like frozen tissues, bone and toe pad extraction and were used to understand and analyse the relationship between the five sub-species of A.farinosa. In the mtDNA data set, 110 sites were variable while about 96 of the sites were parsimony informative. Unique haplotypes were identified and joined to estimate the percentage of relation between the haplotypes. Three distinct haplotypes clust ers and a minimum of 11 mutational steps were recognised. Phylogenies constructed using maximum-likelihood (for both individual as well as concatenated gene regions) and Bayesian method showed the existence of two negatively monophyletic clades- Central American clade and South American clade. The genetic distance recovered between both